Though there is no certain evidence of a pre-Christian Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible, some scholars have suggested that Jewish congregations in Rome and the Western part of the Roman Empire may have used Latin translations of fragments of the Hebrew Bible. Ita enim Deus dilexit mundum, ut Filium suum unigenitum illum dederit, ut quisquis credit in eum, non pereat, sed habeat vitam æternam. The translation was largely the work of Jerome who, in 382, had been commissioned by Pope Damasus I to revise the Vetus Latina ("Old Latin") Gospels used by the Roman Church. As discussed in the Vulgate article, there are several different editions of the Vulgate, including the Clementine Vulgate (1592), and two major modern revisions; the Stuttgart Vulgate (1969), and the Nova Vulgata (NT 1971, OT 1979).  This final revision was intended to be a correction to the Vulgate based on the critical Greek and Hebrew edition, while retaining as much as possible of the Vulgate's language. He has been venerated as a Doctor of the Church since the eighth century. Jerome went to Trier (in today’s Germany) to study theology and spent a few years (368–72) in Aquileia (northern Italy) living a quasi-monastic life with friends. Gradually this perception is altered. A theologian and scholar, he translated the Bible into the language ordinary people could read.  This revision ultimately led to the Nova Vulgata issued by Pope John Paul II in 1979. This version was also the first to introduce verse numbers in the New Testament, although the system used here did not become widely adopted; the system used in Robertus Stephanus's Vulgate would later become the standard for dividing the New Testament. Metrical translations of the Psalms 1500–1620, Comparison of John 3:16 in different Latin versions, Helmut Köster Introduction to the New Testament 2 2000 p34 "An early witness for the African text of the Vetus Latina is Codex Palatinus 1 1 85 (siglum "e") from the 5th century, a gospel codex with readings closely related to the quotations in Cyprian and Augustine. In 1907 Pope Pius X proposed that the Latin text of Saint Jerome be recovered using the principles of Textual criticism as a basis for a new official translation of the Bible into Latin. By the late 20th century the entire Bible had been translated into more than 250 languages, and portions of the Bible had been published in more than 1,300 of the world’s languages. The Holy Bible In Latin Language With Douay-Rheims English Translation The Vulgate is a Latin version of the Holy Bible, and largely the result of the labors of St Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus), who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 A.D. to make a revision of the old Latin translations. The translated version is called the Latin Vulgate. Translation of Scripture is older than Christianity itself. … The Bible translations into Latin are the versions used in the Western part of the former Roman Empire until the Reformation and still used, along with translations from Latin into the vernacular, in the Roman Catholic Church. We’ll look at each of his two claims in turn. After the Vulgate Bible, we entered into an era where the bible was to be translated into English. The Bible was first translated into Latin during the fourth century, and it was referred to as the Vulgate. These represent various attempts to either revise or modernise the Vulgate, or to recover Jerome's original text. ", Gaertner, J. Catholic Sic enim dilexit Deus mundum, ut Filium suum unigenitum daret, ut omnis, qui credit in eum, non pereat, sed habeat vitam aeternam. This page was last edited on 28 September 2020, at 02:08. It was his greatest achievement. After the time of Alexander the Great, Greek became the common language of much of the ancient world. This bible differs from the others presented here because it is in German. The King James Bible was translated from Latin. However, this translation was from the Latin Vulgate, not from the original languages. A Latin verse translations of the psalms 1500-1620. Once published, the new version became widely adopted. He lived from AD 347-419and pursued a monastic lifestyle. The principal Bible used in the church was Jerome's Vulgate (completed in 405). Still, Latin was never an original Scripture language. Between 391 and 406, Jerome translated the Bible to Latin in his rock-hewn cell in Bethlehem. This revision ultimately led to the Nova Vulgata issued by Pope John Paul II in 1979. This final revision was intended to be a correction to the Vulgate based on the critical Greek and Hebrew edition, while retaining as much as possible of the Vulgate's language. Do you read? Erasmus (1469-1536) was already well known as a leading Biblical Humanist. The first nearly complete translation of the Old and New Testaments from the original languages was done by William Tyndale. He said, “We must not read Sacred Scripture as a word of the past but as the Word of God that is also addressed to us, and we must try to understand what it is that the Lord wants to tell us … although it is always a personal Word, it is also a Word that builds community, that builds the Church. His revised Latin translation of the Gospels appeared about 383. Jerome said, “Ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ.” He wrote to a young noble woman, “Do you pray? The Septuagint was the usual source for these anonymous translators, and they reproduce its variations from the Hebrew Masoretic Text. Between 391 and 406, Jerome translated the Bible to Latin in his rock-hewn cell in Bethlehem. Who translated the entire Bible into Latin around AD400? The name Septuagint derives from the Latin word septuaginta, which means 70.The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible is called Septuagint because 70 or 72 Jewish scholars reportedly took part in the translation process. At that time, the Roman Empire was in decline, and the public primarily spoke Latin. In 1516 he published a historic translation of the New Testament in Basel. The Old and New Testaments were first translated into English (actually Middle English) by the priest/scholar Wyclyffe in the 1380s. Collectively, these versions are known as the Vetus Latina and closely follow the Greek Septuagint. The Vulgate, which Jerome translated from Hebrew into Latin, supports the 430 year long sojourn. The Septuagint Bible arose in the 3rd century B.C., when the Hebrew Bible, or Old Testament, was translated into Greek. See the main Vulgate article for a comparison of Psalm 94. Why is the Bible written in latin? Harvard Theological Review 49 1956. This turned into translations he did for London’s Saint Paul’s Cathedral. However, the Bible had not been “accurately” translated into Latin. For one thing, his immediate predecessor on the throne, Queen Elizabeth I, had ordered the execution of his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had represented a Catholic threat to Elizabeth’s Protestant reign. Mr. Euchenwald is emphatic on this point: The King James version of the Bible was translated from Latin. On his own initiative, he extended this work of revision and translation to include most of the books of the Bible. In 382 Pope Damasus asked his secretary, Jerome, a scholar and linguist, to make a revision of the Old Latin translations of the four gospels. In 1527, Xanthus Pagninus produced his Veteris et Novi Testamenti nova translatio, notable for its literal rendering of the Hebrew. For centuries, the West had only known the Vulgate version of the Bible ; this was the translation into Latin by Saint Jerome at the beginning of the 5th century. It was his greatest achievement. It is believed that the first Latin translation was completed around A.D. 200, although no manuscripts … The translation that was written in AD400 was the official translation for how many years. Jerome translated the Hebrew manuscript in 400 AD into Latin and followed the lower Masoretic Genealogical numbers in Gen 5,11. a. This is the 319th translation of the entire Bible; the New Testament has now been translated into 845 languages, and parts of the Bible have been rendered into 1629 tongues. St. Jerome translated the bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. Other versions include the Versio ambrosiana "version of Saint Ambrose," Versio Piana "version of Pius XII," and so on. It served as the masterpiece of St. Jerome, as per the recommendations of the Pope, Damasus the First, during the year 382 AD where it is listed on the Bible Timeline Chart.He was assigned to revise the Vetus Latina or the Old Latin translations. By about 1800 the number had risen to 71. Another professor at Oxford, John Colet, began reading from the Greek New Testament around 1496, after which he would translate it to English for all of his students. Many Jews dispersed throughout that world began to speak Greek as their primary language. He translated it from Latin--the language of scholars and clergy--into the German vernacular. The Vulgate was uses for 1000yrs. In 1415, the Czech priest and scholar Jan Hus, an admirer of Wycliffe, was burned alive for producing a Bible translation in his native language. Jerome was well versed in classical Latin (as well as Greek and Hebrew), but deliberately translated the Bible into the style of Latin that was actually spoken and written by the majority of persons in his own time. Instead, the original translations of the Bible were written in mostly Hebrew and Aramaic for the Old Testament, and Koine Greek for the New Testament.So why is this confusing?Well, the English versions of the Bible that we are reading are mere translations of the original text.It’s best to think of the different translations of the Bible … We must therefore read it in communion with the living Church.”, During the ordination to the diaconate, the bishop hands the Book of the Gospel to the newly ordained deacon and says, “Receive the Gospel of Christ, whose herald you have become. Site by Glass Canvas. The Old Testament Scriptures of the Hebrew Bible were brought into other common languages for centuries before the coming of Jesus Christ, and indeed were a great help to the early church. The idea of Bible copies written in languages other than Latin continued to be a thorn in the eye of the church. Earlier translations were made mainly obsolete by St. Jerome's Vulgate version of the Bible. After Pope Damasus died, Jerome left Rome and went to Bethlehem, where he founded a monastery, opened a school for boys, and spent the remainder of his life writing. He had a passion for apologetics, was an academic, wrote commentaries, and even earned positive remarks from St. Augustine. He was ordained a priest in Antioch in 379. Copyright © 2020 The B.C. Here is what he responded in a correspondence to Pope Damasus: Jerome worked energetically for two years, and when Damasus died in 384, Jerome moved to Bethlehem, where the project grew to include the entire Bible. New Testament was translated from the Greek text, but the Old Testament from Latin and German translations. He wrote to a priest, “May your actions never be unworthy of your words, may it not happen that, when you preach in church, someone might say to himself: ‘Why does he therefore not act like this?’ How could a teacher, on a full stomach, discuss fasting; even a thief can blame avarice; but in the priest of Christ the mind and words must harmonize.”, During the sack of Rome, as refugees fled east, Jerome wrote, “I cannot help them all but I grieve and weep with them. "A good example of such a buried and forgotten literary genre is offered by the multitude of metrical Bible translations into Latin that appeared during the :6th century and after a hundred years ceased to exist as abruptly as it had...", Grant, WL Neo-Latin verse translations of the Bible. He speaks to you.”, Pope Benedict XVI said we can learn from St. Jerome to love the Word of God in Sacred Scripture. Jerome perfected his Greek at Antioch and studied Hebrew in the desert of Chalcis, where he lived as a monk. His translation eventually became known as the Vulgate from the Latin word for common, vulgus. An accurate Latin translation of the Bible was needed. I. Jerome translated the Hebrew MT text into Latin using the lower Chronological numbers: 1. In addition, the Old Testament had been translated into Greek by 70 Jewish scholars, which was called the Septuagint (more on this here). Realize that the bible was first written in Hebrew, then translated to Greek and Latin. 1537: Matthew Bible: Matthew: Translated by John Rogers under the pseudonym "Thomas Matthew." Martin Luther (1483-1546), leader of the German Protestant Reformation, sought to place the Bible into the hands of ordinary Christians. I had the privilege earlier this month to witness 18 young people receive the sacrament of confirmation. The Man Who Translated the Bible. Although his claim to fame is the translation of the Bible into Latin, Jerome was also known for having a problem with anger. For today, we must translate the words of Scripture into deeds, and instead of speaking saintly words we must act them.”. Answer: “The Vulgate” is the popular name given to the Latin version of the Bible, a translation usually attributed to Jerome. Jerome actually used the term to refer to the Latin translations that came The Fifth Luminous Mystery of the Holy Rosary is The Institution of the Eucharist. First complete Bible in modern English. You speak to the Bridegroom. 'Ignorance of the scriptures', he wrote, 'is ignorance of Christ'. Metrical Latin Bible translations are primarily Psalm paraphrases, or paraphrases of Song of Songs, Lamentations, in Latin verse which appeared in the 16th century, then abruptly disappeared.. Coverdale Bible: Coverdale: Translated by Miles Coverdale. So, Eichenwald (1) insists that the KJV was translated from Latin and then (2) uses Hebrews 11:11 to explain why it matters. Starting off for the Holy Land he fell sick and had a vision of being judged. 1. What name was given to the translation. And, completely given up to the duties which charity imposes on me, I have put aside my commentary on Ezekiel and almost all study. Believe what you read, teach what you believe, and practise what you teach.”, St. Jerome emphasized the importance of practising the teachings of the Bible. Jerome composed On Illustrious Men, a listing of 135 authors, from St. Peter to himself, who exercised an influence on Christian thought. Jerome died in Bethlehem on Sept. 30, 420. Sic enim dilexit Deus mundum, ut Filium suum unigenitum daret, ut omnis qui credit in eum non pereat, sed habeat vitam æternam. St. Jerome was born in Stridon, Dalmatia (now in Croatia), in about 345. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.’”. Latin was dominant in the western church. February 4, 2014 by Father Carota St. Jerome Translated The Holy Bible Into LATIN St. Jerome was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to gather and examine all Holy Scriptures, Old and New and translate them into LATIN for the good of the Catholic Church. Rise and fall of the Roman empire. He also had a very detailed, in depth knowledge of the German language, in its daily, political or diplomatic use:“In my translation of the Bible I strove to use pure and intelligible German… St. Jerome, born Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus (Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος) in Stridon, Dalmatia circa 347, is best known for making the Bible accessible to the masses. The first translation of the Bible into Pig Latin. ; his translation of the Bible into Latin, called the Vulgate, became the definitive Bible translation for over a thousand years. Part of the confusion when it comes to reading the Bible is that the Bible wasn’t originally written in English. He returned to Rome in 382 and became secretary to Pope St. Damasus, who asked him improve the Latin translations of the Scriptures. They were never rendered independently from the Hebrew or Greek; they vary widely in readability and quality, and contain many solecisms in idiom, some by the translators themselves, others from literally translating Greek language idioms into Latin.. John Colet. Before Jerome’s time, as the number of Latin-speaking Christians grew, the Bible was translated into Latin so that the Christians of the time could understand it. About the time of the invention of printing in 1450, there were only 33 different translations of the Bible. And even though Elizabeth had established the supremacy of the Anglican Church (founded by he… His translation eventually became known as the Vulgate from the Latin word for common, vulgus. English Bible Versions Translation. I have always been a strict adherent to the “no-Christmas-decorations-before-Advent” philosophy. , The earliest known translations into Latin consist of a number of piecework translations during the early Church period. At the age of 12 he went to Rome to study classics under Donatus and was baptized there around age 19. Jerome knew Hebrew, and revised and unified the Latin Bibles of the time to bring them into conformity with the Hebrew as he understood it. Luther had studied at the University of Erfurt, where the humanities were a great influence. Asked who and what I was I replied: ‘I am a Christian.’ But He who presided said: ‘You lied, you are a follower of Cicero and not of Christ. The religion and culture of Jews. 345年，聖業樂出生於今天隸屬克羅地亞、達爾馬提亞的斯特里登。十二歲到羅馬作為多納圖斯門生，修讀古典學；十九歲接受洗禮。後來，他轉到今天德國的特里爾修讀神學；368-372年，和友人在意大利北部的阿奎萊亞，渡了幾年類似隱修的生活。, 當業樂起程去聖地，生了病；病榻中他得了神視。他寫道：「我的靈魂突然被提昇到至尊者審判台前，哪裡的光芒十分麗亮，連在旁席的人，都發出耀目的光；我嚇得不敢抬頭，俯伏地上。我對審判者表明我是基督徒；誰知那首席審判者斥責我說：『不，你說謊！你只是跟隨了西塞羅，不是基督。因為你的財寶在哪裡，你的心也在哪裡。』」, 業樂在安提亞修畢希臘文，隨即到查爾斯沙漠，一邊渡隱修生活，另一邊學習希伯來文。379年，業樂在安提亞晉鐸，382年返回羅馬，任教宗聖達甦秘書。教宗後來命他優化聖經的拉丁譯本。, 教宗聖達甦去世後，業樂離開羅馬，到白冷建立一座修院，並開班教授男孩，以寫作渡其餘生。, 業樂編撰「傑出的人」一書，從聖伯多祿到他的時代，列舉了一百三十五位具影響力的基督徒作家。他此舉顯示和確認了基督宗教文學的重要，成了一個真實的文化，可與古典文學比美。, 391-406年，身處白冷的業樂，在山石鑿成的洞穴內，用拉丁文翻譯聖經，被公認為是他最大的成就，統稱為「拉丁聖經通俗本」。, 業樂說：「不認識聖經，不認識耶穌。」他曾致函一位貴族婦女，說：「你祈禱嗎？那在向新郎說話。你閱讀聖經嗎？那是祂向你講話。」教宗本篤十六世認為，我們可以學習聖業樂愛慕聖經所載的聖言；他說：「我們不應該把聖經看做過去的話，而是向我們說出的天主聖言，我們必須嘗試明白主願意告訴我們什麼…。雖然聖言是為個人的，聖言也是為建樹團體。所以，我們必須在教會共融中閱讀聖言。」, 晉升執事聖職禮儀時，主教會把一本聖經交給新執事說：「請接受基督的福音，你已經是基督的使者，請注意，你要信仰你所宣讀的，要教導你所信仰的，要實行你所教導的。」聖業樂強調實踐聖經教導的重要。他給一位神父寫道：「別讓你的行為，不相稱你的言語；當你在聖堂訓導時，別讓人說你行不乎語。肚滿腸肥的人，怎能與人談論齋戒嚴呢？甚至當盜賊的亦會指責別人貪婪；但作為基督的司祭，心思與言語應該一致。」, 眼看羅馬搶略猖獗，難民東逃，聖業樂記載著：「我無法幫助所有的人，但我與他們同憂同泣。我要完全投入愛德所加於我的義務，並放下我在詮釋的厄則厄耳先知書及幾乎所有的研讀。因為今天我們必須將聖經的話譯成行為，不要只説化聖善的話語而是要實踐。」, Pope Francis proclaims Year of St. Joseph, Mary’s ‘yes’ was the first and ultimate confirmation, No Christmas or New Year’s Masses as restrictions extended to Jan. 8, ‘We don’t want COVID to steal Christmas’: archdiocese launches Blue Light holiday campaign, Crowd prays for return to worship at spontaneous cathedral gathering, Archbishop in talks with health minister about church closings, Ottawa archbishop takes on new mission from Pope Francis. Harvard Theological Review 52 1959, Hugues Vaganay, Les Traductions du psautier en vers latins au XVie siecle, Freiburg, 1898, main Vulgate article for a comparison of Psalm 94, "Le Cantique des cantiques dans la Bible Latine de Castellion", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bible_translations_into_Latin&oldid=980721708, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.
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