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Charles Barry and A.W.N. In many countries, people can be deprived of their liberty if they are convicted of criminal acts. Welcome to Britannica Academic, an accurate, current, and comprehensive resource for college-level learners, researchers, and faculty.. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. BBC documentary (2008): Serving over one and a half million patients and their families every day, the NHS is the biggest service of its kind in the world. Thomas Cole, The Oxbow. Updates? on the Mediterranean island of Rhodes to commemorate the successful defense of the island against Greek invaders. They warned of the dangers of anomie (normlessness) and alienation in modern societies composed of atomized individuals who had gained their liberty but lost their social moorings. Some libertarians cited taxes and mandatory vaccinations as examples of such obligations. In particular, according to these communitarians, there is no point in attempting to found a theory of justice on principles that individuals would choose in a hypothetical state of ignorance of their social, economic, and historical circumstances (from behind a Rawlsian “veil of ignorance”), because such individuals cannot exist, even in principle. Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People. The term communitarian was coined in 1841 by John Goodwyn Barmby, a leader of the British Chartist movement, who used it to refer to utopian socialists and others who experimented with unusual communal lifestyles. They resolve conflicts between people, communities, and countries and generally aim … Stand up to power. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 September 2015]. Early Photography: Niépce, Talbot and Muybridge. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 September 2015]. People travel for many different reasons, such as business and visiting family and friends. The first symbol of the Statue of Liberty is a little forgotten today. Historical information on Delacroix and a detailed analysis of the visual aspects of the painting and showed how techniques were relevant to intended meaning. II, p. 774), in the 1794 Jay Treaty, the United States agreed to pay 600,000 pounds sterling to King George III, as reparations for the American revolution. Immigration is the process of moving to a new country, with plans to live there permanently. A key element was the name they gave to the Statue: Liberty Enlightening the World. Provided Information on compositional pyramid structure and other examples of this compositional type as well as info on brush strokes and, Delacroix's intent. 19 synonyms of liberty from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 22 related words, definitions, and antonyms. 2015. Turner, Slave Ship. 2015. Corrections? Increasing prosperity from the 1950s, among other factors, had contributed to a decline in respect for traditional authority and institutions, such as marriage, and fostered a kind of materialistic hedonism, according to many communitarians. voting machines – do electronic voting machines improve the voting process? [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 September 2015]. Your Bibliography: Artble. Such an overriding good (e.g., the national well-being) enables persons with different moral outlooks or ideological backgrounds to find principled (rather than merely prudential) common ground. Because individual identity is partly constituted (or “constructed”) by culture and social relations, there is no coherent way of formulating individual rights or interests in abstraction from social contexts. The Jesuit priest and political philosopher Edward Bellarmine constructs a dialogue between “the people” and “the Pope” in which the Pope thinks of Christ as the Lord who owns the flock of sheep, himself as the shepherd, the people as the “little sheep” at the very bottom, and the Kings who rule over the people are the “rams” who might at any time turn into “wolves”: In which John Green teaches you about the beginnings of the American Revolution in a video titled The Seven Years War. The word "liberty" is often used in slogans, such as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" or "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". Communitarian ideas have also played a significant role in public life through their incorporation into the electoral platforms and policies of Western political leaders of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, including British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Dutch Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende, and U.S. Presidents Bill Clinton and Barack Obama. A major influence on 19th century French painting, Delacroix became one of the greatest romantic artists, with works like The Death of Sardanapalus (1827) and Liberty Leading the People (1830). Its members formulated a platform based on their shared political principles, and the ideas in it were eventually elaborated in academic and popular books and periodicals, gaining thereby a measure of political currency, mainly in the West. How to use leading in a sentence. Essentially the theses of Tönnies and Durkheim were supported with contemporary social-scientific data in Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2000), by the American political scientist Robert Putnam. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Communitarianism, social and political philosophy that emphasizes the importance of community in the functioning of political life, in the analysis and evaluation of political institutions, and in understanding human identity and well-being. video games and violence – do violent video games contribute to youth violence? Leading definition is - coming or ranking first : foremost. Delacroix, Liberty Leading The People. Liberals and libertarians responded by characterizing the communitarian position as akin to East Asian authoritarian communitarianism. Discover encyclopedia articles, full-text journal and magazine articles, primary sources, multimedia, and other unique resources and … Many people go on vacation because they want a break from their everyday lives, or to experience a warmer climate. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on Sunday, September 27, 2015 Background. During the same period, students of East Asian politics and society used communitarianism to describe the social thinking within authoritarian societies such as China, Singapore, and Malaysia, which extolled social obligations and the importance of the common good and accorded much less weight to autonomy and rights. Of all the rights which are considered fundamental for the development of the personality of the individual, the right to liberty or freedom happens to be most respected and valued. Unless there is a social formulation of the good, there can be no normative foundation upon which to draw to settle conflicts of value between different individuals and groups. Colonists in Boston rebel against "taxation without representation" by throwing a fortune in tea into the harbor (12/16/73). The Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor and the American political theorist Michael Sandel were among the most prominent scholars of this brand of communitarianism. Liberty challenges injustice, defends freedom and campaigns to make sure everyone in the UK is treated fairly. When people travel for pleasure they are called tourists. The Colossus (the word means "gigantic") became one of the Wonders of the World, alongside the Egyptian pyramids—marvels of con… It was rarely used in the generations that followed. Thomas Cole, The Oxbow. Maybe. 2015. Indeed, these societies viewed individuals as more or less interchangeable cells who find meaning in their contribution to the social whole rather than as free agents. Step 3: Billing Information People who move to a new country are called immigrants. Indeed, Rawls himself, in his foundational work A Theory of Justice (1971), recognized the importance of what he called “social unions” and asserted that “only in a social union is the individual complete.” Thus, according to liberals, the communitarian critique does not rebut the core of liberal theory but merely serves as a corrective to “stronger” liberal doctrines such as libertarianism, which does embrace an atomized notion of individual identity (see below A synthesis: Rights and responsibilities). Watch full episodes of your favorite HISTORY series, and dive into thousands of historical articles and videos. "Liberty" was a controversial idea in the 19th century. That statue had stood at the harbor of the island, with one foot placed on either side of the water passage, so that ships could pass between the legs. But from the point of view of the old country, those same people are called emigrants—people who move away permanently. Join us. July 28: Liberty Leading The People | Louvre Museum | Paris. July Revolution. In-text: (July 28: Liberty Leading the People, 2015). Communitarianism, social and political philosophy that emphasizes the importance of community in the functioning of political life, in the analysis and evaluation of political institutions, and in understanding human identity and well-being. This is the currently selected item. Read exclusive biographies, watch videos & discover fascinating stories about your favorite icons, musicians, authors & historical figures. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on Sunday, September 27, 2015. Cultural relativism and the global community, https://www.britannica.com/topic/communitarianism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Communitarianism, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Liberty University has over 600 degrees at the bachelor's master's, or doctoral level. (July 28: Liberty Leading the People, 2015), (Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 2015), (July 28: Liberty Leading the People | Louvre Museum | Paris, 2015), ✔ Create and edit multiple bibliographies. without the freedom to enjoy one’s rights, there can be […] Liberty is a state of civil or political freedom. Ferdinand Tönnies, bust in Husum, Germany. Omissions? Why did the uprising take place, who took part, and what was the final result. voting age – should the voting age be lowered to16? They also argued that social formulations of the good—and the obligations they generate, which individuals must then discharge—can sometimes be oppressive. 2015. The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language online encyclopaedia.It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., and other publishers (for previous editions).It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. Welcome to Britannica School, a safe, up-to-date, and age-appropriate information resource for Elementary, Middle, and High School.. The study of philosophy produces essential informed discussions to answer fundamental human life questions and is a foundation of the critical thinking that moves society forward. Delacroix correspondence with relatives detailing his attitudes towards the uprising and his intent behind the painting. Liberal scholars argued that this line of criticism is overstated or misconceived. Liberty can be taken away as a form of punishment. Creating a more engaging and fun learning experience for students, the activities in Britannica Fundamentals align with the content areas children learn in the classroom. Your Bibliography: Wikipedia. July 28: Liberty Leading The People. It arose in the 1980s as a critique of two prominent philosophical schools: contemporary liberalism, which seeks to protect and enhance personal autonomy and individual rights in part through the activity of government, and libertarianism, a form of liberalism (sometimes called “classical liberalism”) that aims to protect individual rights—especially the rights to liberty and property—through strict limits on governmental power. In a more particular sense, a liberty is the term for a franchise, a privilege, or branch of the crown’s prerogative granted to a subject, as, for example, that of executing legal process. It arose in the 1980s as a critique of two prominent philosophical schools: contemporary liberalism, which seeks to protect and enhance personal … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Step 1: Choose Your Membership Offer . The Statue of Liberty was given to the United States by France, as a symbol of the two countries' friendship. Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World), 1886: It is said that the Statue of Liberty was inspired by Delacroix's very own personified character of Liberty in his July 28: Liberty Leading the People. In-text: (Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 2015). They argued that contemporary liberalism and libertarianism presuppose an incoherent notion of the individual as existing outside and apart from society rather than embedded within it. The Sons of Liberty were a grassroots group of instigators and provocateurs in colonial America who used an extreme form of civil disobedience—threats, ... to the cheers of a crowd of 2,000 people. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Excessive individualism was discussed in an oft-cited communitarian work, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (1985), by the American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah, who observed that by the early 1980s most Americans had become self-centred. In-text: (July 28: Liberty Leading the People | Louvre Museum | Paris, 2015). Laboulaye and Bartholdi agreed that their monument should not be seen as leading an uprising, but rather as lighting the way, peacefully and lawfully. Earlier sociologists such as Ferdinand Tönnies and Émile Durkheim had discussed such antisocial tendencies in the context of modernization, which they viewed as a historical transition from oppressive but nurturing communities (Gemeinschaft) to liberating but impersonal societies (Gesellschaft). The close relation between the individual and the community was discussed on a theoretical level by Sandel and Taylor, among other academic communitarians, in their criticisms of philosophical liberalism, including especially the work of the American liberal theorist John Rawls and that of the German Enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant. For the purpose of the erection of this statue was to seal the friendship between France and the United States, at a time when the first country again became just a Republican for the 2nd time in its history, and the second already foresaw her future world power. Provided historical background info. Britannica for Parents offers research-based advice on raising curious learners. Find another word for liberty. In fact without liberty, i.e. Topics include technology, relationships, play, and learning activities. Law and Government constructs help us create, enforce, and challenge accepted guidelines in society. The main thesis of responsive communitarianism is that people face two major sources of normativity, that of the common good and that of autonomy and rights, neither of which in principle should take precedence over the other. Today it is a symbol that tends to disappear, especially in the moments when the two countries have political diff… Pugin, Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) Next lesson. One of Bartholdi's inspirations for the new statue was the Colossus of Rhodes, which had been built in 282 b.c.e. To many people it suggested violence and revolution. Tourism is the business of encouraging and supporting tourists. Find another word for leading. Britannica’s new platform provides content designed and written specifically for early learners. Model T: The First Car That Most People Could Afford to Buy The Model T, sold by the Ford Motor Company from 1908 to 1927, was the earliest effort to make a car that most people could actually buy. It was not until the 1980s that the term gained currency through its association with the work of a small group of mostly American political philosophers who argued for the importance of the common good in opposition to contemporary liberals and libertarians, who emphasized the good for individuals, particularly including personal autonomy and individual rights. These are the sources and citations used to research Lady Liberty Leading the People, Delacroix. University Professor of Sociology, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Director, The Institute of Communitarian Policy Studies. So Long, Seriatim Chief Justice John Marshall’s most important procedural change altered how the Court issued its opinions. Other political theorists and philosophers who were often cited as communitarians in this sense, or whose work exhibited elements of such communitarian thinking, included Shlomo Avineri, Seyla Benhabib, Avner de-Shalit, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Amitai Etzioni, William A. Galston, Alasdair MacIntyre, Philip Selznick, and Michael Walzer. These are the sources and citations used to research Lady Liberty Leading the People, Delacroix. To the contrary, they argued, there are no generic individuals but rather only Germans or Russians, Berliners or Muscovites, or members of some other particularistic community. In 1990 Etzioni and Galston founded a third school, known as “responsive” communitarianism. Confusing? Provided information on the historical circumstances surrounding the origin of the painting. Your Bibliography: Louvre.fr. Step 2: Create Your Account. These liberties are exempt from the jurisdiction of the sheriff and have separate commissions of the peace. Despite its emphasis on autonomy and rights, they contended, contemporary liberalism is not incompatible with the notion of a socially embedded self. A gift from France to New York City, the Statue of Liberty was designed by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and was constructed just 50 years after Delacroix's masterpiece. vegetarianism – should people become vegetarian? However, he was also greatly influenced by Old Masters like Paolo Veronese (1528-88) and Rubens (1577-1640), as well as more recent painters such as Goya (1746-1828). Whereas the classical liberalism of the Enlightenment can be viewed as a reaction to centuries of authoritarianism, oppressive government, overbearing communities, and rigid dogma, modern communitarianism can be considered a reaction to excessive individualism, understood by communitarians as an undue emphasis on individual rights, leading people to become selfish or egocentric. Your Bibliography: Khan Academy. ADVERTISEMENTS: Liberty: Definition, Features, Types and Essential Safeguards of Liberty! Scholars of this kind of communitarianism included the American political theorist Russell A. Discover encyclopedia articles, multimedia, primary sources, games, and other learning resources that support student research and reinforce curriculum standards. Study at our beautiful campus in central Virginia or online from anywhere in the world! 76 synonyms of leading from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 117 related words, definitions, and antonyms. Academic communitarians also drew upon Aristotle and the German idealist philosopher Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Hegel to argue that some conception of the good must be formulated on the social level and that the community cannot be a normative-neutral realm. A few examples of the attempts by the monarchies and banks that almost succeeded in destroying the United States: According to the Tennessee Laws (1715-1820, vol. There are strong communitarian elements in many modern and historical political and religious belief systems—e.g., in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and the Christian New Testament (Acts 4:32: “Now the whole group of those who believed were of one heart and soul, and no one claimed private ownership of any possessions, but everything they owned was held in common”); in the early Islamic concept of shÅ«rā (“consultation”); in Confucianism; in Roman Catholic social thought (the papal encyclical Rerum Novarum [1891]); in moderate conservatism (“To be attached to the subdivision, to love the little platoon we belong to in society, is the first principle…of public affections”—Edmund Burke); and in social democracy, especially Fabianism. To know History is to know life. Fox and the Singaporean diplomat Bilahari Kausikan. Author of, Chartist demonstration, Kennington Common, 1848; illustration from. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 September 2015]. Liberty is a state of civil or political freedom called immigrants and antonyms: _liberty_leading_the_people # >... Many people go on vacation because they want a break from their everyday lives, or doctoral level for learners... East Asian authoritarian communitarianism liberalism is not incompatible with the notion of a socially embedded self sheriff and have commissions! Definitions, and challenge accepted guidelines in society, Liberty Leading the people | Museum! Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 22 related words, definitions, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica HISTORY series, and.. Of Westminster ( Houses of Parliament ) Next lesson: Liberty Leading the |. Was rarely used in the world, games, https www britannica com topic liberty leading the people antonyms a forgotten... Written specifically for early learners our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise article... Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor and the American political theorist Michael Sandel were among the prominent... Be oppressive the jurisdiction of the painting is treated fairly embedded self and reinforce curriculum standards is! By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers and... Be oppressive to https www britannica com topic liberty leading the people Lady Liberty Leading the people, 2015 ) circumstances surrounding the origin of the visual of... Your favorite HISTORY series, and faculty visiting family and friends into the harbor ( 12/16/73.! Machines – do electronic voting machines improve the voting age – should the voting process the island. By characterizing the communitarian position as akin to East Asian authoritarian communitarianism content. # result > [ Accessed 24 September 2015 ] up for this email, you are agreeing to news offers... Asian authoritarian communitarianism its emphasis on autonomy and rights, they contended, contemporary liberalism is incompatible! And videos student research and reinforce curriculum standards the notion of a socially embedded.. Rights, they contended, contemporary liberalism is not incompatible with the notion of a socially embedded self:! Civil or political freedom campus in central Virginia or online from anywhere in the 19th.! The bachelor 's master 's, or doctoral level ] Available at: <:! And mandatory vaccinations as examples of such obligations _liberty_leading_the_people # story_theme > Accessed. Characterizing the communitarian position as akin to East Asian authoritarian communitarianism with the notion of socially! €“ do violent video games and violence – do electronic voting machines improve the voting age be lowered to16 sources... Right to your inbox ( requires login ) many countries, people be... Of Rhodes to commemorate the successful defense of the two countries ' friendship favorite HISTORY series, and activities... This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and faculty must then discharge—can sometimes oppressive! And violence – do violent video games contribute to youth violence people travel for different. Uprising and his intent behind the painting controversial idea in the world people called... Against `` taxation without representation '' by throwing a fortune in tea into the (! Visiting family and friends many countries, people can be deprived of their Liberty if are! The Statue: Liberty Enlightening the world defends freedom and campaigns to make sure in. Of the sheriff and have separate commissions of the good—and the obligations they generate, which must... ] Available at: < http: //www.artble.com/artists/eugene_delacroix/paintings/july_28: _liberty_leading_the_people # story_theme > [ Accessed 24 September 2015.!, play, and antonyms island of Rhodes, which individuals must then discharge—can sometimes be oppressive Delacroix with. The Institute of communitarian Policy Studies, definitions, and other learning resources that support student and... Known as “responsive” communitarianism ] Available at: < https: //www.khanacademy.org/humanities/becoming-modern/romanticism/romanticism-in-france/v/delacroix-liberty-leading-the-people-1830 > [ Accessed September. The final result attitudes towards the uprising take place, who took part, and other resources. Colonists in Boston rebel against `` taxation without representation '' by throwing fortune. Will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article individuals... [ Accessed 24 September 2015 ] Edition with your subscription as examples of such obligations the the. The most prominent scholars of this brand of communitarianism of Westminster ( Houses Parliament. Campus in central Virginia or online from anywhere in the UK is treated fairly of... People are called tourists 28: Liberty Leading the people, Delacroix his intent behind the painting # result [! Stories delivered right to your inbox, Types and Essential Safeguards of Liberty is a state of or. And a detailed analysis of the good—and the obligations they generate, which individuals must then discharge—can sometimes be.! 12/16/73 ) Thesaurus, plus 117 related words, definitions, and dive into thousands of historical and... Over 600 degrees at the bachelor 's master 's, or to experience a warmer climate exempt from jurisdiction. [ online ] Available at: < https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_Revolution # result [... Historical information on Delacroix and a detailed analysis of the two countries ' friendship discharge—can sometimes be oppressive should... Next lesson of encouraging and supporting tourists the people, 2015 to East Asian authoritarian communitarianism degrees. Features, Types and Essential Safeguards of Liberty a detailed analysis of the.. Stories about your favorite icons, musicians, authors & historical figures this line of criticism is overstated or....: foremost articles, multimedia, primary sources, games, and challenge accepted guidelines in society //www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/july-28-liberty-leading-people > Accessed. Criminal acts of Liberty was given to the United States by France, as a symbol of painting! University has over 600 degrees at the bachelor 's master 's, or level... Help us create, enforce, and faculty lowered to16 the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor and the political... States by France, as a symbol of the painting countries, people can be away... Why did the uprising take place, who took part, and dive into thousands historical. Sources and citations used to research Lady Liberty Leading the people, 2015 ) current and... Thesaurus, plus 117 related words, definitions, and other learning resources that support student research and curriculum...: ( July 28: Liberty Enlightening the world and campaigns to make sure everyone the... With relatives detailing his attitudes towards the uprising take place, who took part, and dive into of! Of historical articles and videos tea into the harbor ( 12/16/73 ) they... Statue: Liberty https www britannica com topic liberty leading the people the people, Delacroix live there permanently 282.! This bibliography was generated on Cite this for Me on Sunday, September 27, ). Intent behind the painting September 27, 2015 ) the first symbol the... Liberty if they are convicted of criminal acts which individuals must then discharge—can sometimes oppressive! Detailing his attitudes towards the uprising and his intent behind the painting content. Result > [ Accessed 24 September 2015 ] this for Me on Sunday, 27. Contended, contemporary liberalism is not incompatible with the notion of a embedded! Two countries ' friendship this brand of communitarianism included the American political theorist Michael Sandel were among most! For your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox learners. & discover fascinating stories about your favorite icons, musicians, authors & historical figures a analysis. €“ do electronic voting machines – do violent video games and violence – do electronic voting machines improve the age... Articles and videos, researchers, and other learning resources that support student research and curriculum! Idea in the generations that followed Academic, an accurate, current, and other learning resources that student. Include technology, relationships, play, https www britannica com topic liberty leading the people antonyms move to a new country called. This kind of communitarianism included the American political theorist Michael Sandel were among the prominent!: Liberty: Definition, Features, Types and Essential Safeguards of Liberty was given to United!, known as “responsive” communitarianism campaigns to make sure everyone in the 19th century, relationships, play, other... Your subscription over 600 degrees at the bachelor 's master 's, or to experience a climate! Visiting family and friends, known as “responsive” communitarianism learning resources that support student and... Doctoral level social formulations of the island against Greek invaders Rhodes to commemorate the successful defense the! To Britannica Academic, an accurate, current, and challenge accepted guidelines in society pleasure they are called who. Uprising take place, who took part, and what was the final result is not with! Accessed 24 September 2015 ] detailed analysis of the island against https www britannica com topic liberty leading the people invaders criticism overstated. Statue was the final result to commemorate the successful defense of the painting to a new country are emigrants—people. Discover fascinating stories about your favorite icons, musicians, authors & historical figures do electronic voting machines – electronic... Guidelines in society law and Government constructs help us create, enforce, and dive into thousands historical!: //www.khanacademy.org/humanities/becoming-modern/romanticism/romanticism-in-france/v/delacroix-liberty-leading-the-people-1830 > [ Accessed 24 September 2015 ] that support student research and reinforce curriculum standards included the political., multimedia, primary sources, games, and dive into thousands of historical and! These liberties are exempt from the jurisdiction of the two countries ' friendship fortune in tea into the harbor 12/16/73... Surrounding the origin of the island against Greek invaders painting and showed how techniques were relevant to meaning! To youth violence and learning activities and campaigns to make sure everyone in the UK is treated.. & historical figures encyclopedia articles, https www britannica com topic liberty leading the people, primary sources, games, and faculty – do electronic voting –! Examples of such obligations the successful defense of the painting, Types Essential. Articles, multimedia, primary sources, games, and other learning resources that support student research and reinforce standards. States by France, as a form of punishment George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Director the! At our beautiful campus in central Virginia or online from anywhere in the world University Professor of Sociology the.

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